Researchers at the University of California San Diego used Spectrum Labs’ hollow fiber modules in their paper titled “Polyethylene Glycol Camouflaged Earthworm Hemoglobin” on PLOS One. The scientists used 0.2 μm and 500 kDa MWCO  MiniKros® Samplers to concentrate earthworm homogenate. The Samplers were used in parallel to concentrate the solution down to 200 mL.

The scientists sought an answer to the scarcity of blood available for transfusions across the globe. Their solution was to develop an oxygen carrier to increase the longevity of blood sample’s shelf life. The article concludes that LtEc, collected from the earthworm homogenate, is an effective oxygen transporter with no adverse side effects.

Abstract: Nearly 21 million components of blood and whole blood and transfused annually in the United States, while on average only 13.6 million units of blood are donated. As the demand for Red Blood Cells (RBCs) continues to increase due to the aging population, this deficit will be more significant. Click here to read the article.


Tangential Flow Filtration (TFF)  involves the recirculation of the retentate across the surface of the membrane. This gentle cross flow feed acts to minimize membrane fouling, maintain a high filtration rate and provide higher product recovery. Click here for more information.

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170041